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Cul plan

The same opinion is expressed by an earlier thinker, Aristotle, when he criticized the Hippodamian grid.
Research studies examined the influence of several variables on the amount of car travel that residents of several types of districts recorded.
Thirsty seasonal flowering plants, manicured shrubs, and escort st jerome other high maintenance landscaping elements are generally not planted in cul-de-sac islands because they may look nice at first, but detract quickly from a neighborhood if they are not maintained.Given the complicated legal process and the sheer number of exiting cul-de-sac streets, however, such efforts would be slow to produce results and may only have a marginal impact in changing the landscape of existing districts.Culs-de-sac, especially those that also cut off pedestrian connections instead of limiting only road traffic, have also been criticised for negative effects on safety, because they decrease the amount of through traffic (vehicular or pedestrian) that might spot an accident or crime victim in need.(Similarly, French existentialist Jean-Paul Sartre titled a play about three damned sinners, Huis Clos, translated into English as " No Exit ".) Kingsley's play was later made into a movie, Dead End, which proved so popular that it spawned similar movies, many starring a group.36 (see under signage below).The long history of such cities implies that an irregular, complicated street network that appears entirely illegible to a visitor is well understood and used by the inhabitants."Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of children's active free-play: a cross-sectional study".Islands smaller than 3,400 square feet, which are within the county road right-of-way, are maintained by the Township one time per year which includes mowing, trimming, blowing and trash pick-up."We tell New Yorkers the truth: it's a 'dead end and we think that motorists get the point quickly." 48 California uses the phrase Not a Through Street or Not a Through Road to mark roads or road systems that end in culs-de-sac.Mehaffy, Michael; Porta, Sergio; Rofe, Yodan Salingaros, Nikos (2010).This increases fuel consumption and vehicle emissions and has negative effects on health by reducing walking and cycling rates.A b c Safire, William.Citation needed Inferential evidence of their earlier use can also be drawn from the text of a German architect, Rudolf Eberstadt, that explains their purpose and utility: We have, in our medieval towns, showing very commendable methods of cutting up the land.44 It was first used in English in anatomy (since 1738).This temporal coincidence of the wide adoption of a street type call a girl cute and an increasing demand for large lots and houses creates the impression of a necessary relationship between street type and unit density.In the US, these changes can be attributed to real-estate developers' desire to meet FHA guidelines and make federal home loans available to their consumers.From an environmental perspective, culs-de-sac allow greater flexibility than the common grid in adapting to the natural grades of a site and to its ecologically sensitive features, such as streams creeks and mature forest growth.
A dead end is a street with only one inlet/outlet.
Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board.

Among its conclusions are, respectively, that a) flats are always safer than houses and the wealth of inhabitants matters; b) density is generally beneficial but more so at ground level; c) local movement is beneficial, larger scale movement not so; d) relative affluence and the.
Some neighbors have a special interest or expertise in landscape.